The normal Walker circulation in the Pacific consists of air rising over Indonesia, west winds in the upper troposphere, sinking air off the west coast of South America, and east winds near the surface. A reversed but weaker Walker circulation (and an enhanced Hadley circulation occurs during ENSO years. In the Indian ocean the circulation cell proceeds in the opposite sense (to the normal Pacific Walker cell), with sinking air over cold waters off the Somali coast and a low-level acceleration from west to east along the equator in the lower atmosphere. See Henderson-Sellers and Robinson (1986) and Kraus and Businger (1994).
Examples include AAIW, AASW, SAMW, SAUW, AACW, WDW, AABW, ABW, GSDW, ASW, PDW, SIW, WSPCW, ESPCW, WNPCW, ENPCW, NPEW, SPEW, JSMW, JSPW, IDW, PGW, ICW, AAMW, BBW, LSW, EMW, AIW, SACW, NACW, MMW, MDW, AW, and LIW.
where is the kinematic viscosity, l a characteristic length scale, the fluid density and the surface tension.
The water column in the western WSC itself is nearly homogenuous due to vertical mixing that is active to one degree or another throughout the year. As one proceeds eastward lateral mixing processes gradually mix this homogenous water with the stratified waters to the north and south until such stratification is restored on the WSC is no longer in evidence. The complex bathymetry in the region is thought to play a major part in inducing the lateral mixing processes. See Patterson and Sievers (1980).
The field study began in November 1985 and ended in March 1987, and consisted of the placement of long-term current meter moorings as well as campaigns for procuring measurements from aircraft. The field campaigns ran concurrently with those of two other experiments: POEM and the Gibraltar Experiment, with some effort being expended to make the three campaigns complementary to each other. See La Violette (1990).
where T is the temperature (K). The temperature of a black body can be determined from the wavelength of maximum monochromatic radiation using this relation. The maximum emission wavelengths for the Sun and the Earth calculated from this are, respectively, 0.50 m and 11.4 m.